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OZONE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AVIAN INFLUENZA: Preliminary theoretical considerations and possible therapeutic directions

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Ozone Therapy: A Critical Physiological and Diverse Clinical Evaluation with Regard to Immune Modulation, Anti-Infectious Properties, Anti-Cancer Potential, and Impact on Anti-Oxidant Enzymes

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THE STORY OF OZONE – Saul Pressman


In nature, there is a cycle of oxygen just like there is a cycle of water. Oxygen is released from plants on land and plankton in the sea during photosynthesis. The oxygen is lighter than air and floats upward in the atmosphere. At the 20-30 km region, strong ultraviolet radiation in the 185-200 nanometer wavelength bombards the oxygen and turns some of it into ozone. The ozone created exists as a thin layer in the atmosphere and it blocks out the small portion of the UV spectrum that it absorbs. The great majority of the UV reaches the earth allowing suntanning, which Dr. Michael Carpendale of the San Francisco Veteran’s Administration Hospital has noted is useful in a very efficacious therapy developed in the early years of this century. We hear a great deal about the thinning of the ozone layer in the media, but the facts are otherwise. Ozone production in the upper atmosphere is dependent on the amount of energy coming from the sun. During peaks of solar activity, ozone is created at a greater rate. During lulls in the sunspot cycle, the ozone layer is thinner. The lowest level ever measured was in 1962. At night, on the dark side of the planet, the ozone layer disappears, in a few hours. The layer is reformed as the sun rises in the morning. There is no ozone over the poles in the winter because there is no sunlight. Ozone is produced constantly in the upper atmosphere as long as the sun is shining, and since ozone is heavier than air, it begins to fall earthward. As it falls, it combines with any pollutant it contacts, cleaning the air — nature’s wonderful self-cleaning system. If ozone contacts water vapor as it falls, it forms hydrogen peroxide, a component of rainwater, and the reason why rainwater causes plants to grow better than irrigation. Ozone is also created by lightning, and the amount produced in an average storm is often triple the allowable limit of .015 PPM as set by the US EPA. This ozone is what gives the air the wonderful fresh smell after a rain, and is of the highest benefit to anyone fortunate enough to be breathing it. Ozone is also created by waterfalls and crashing surf, which accounts for the energetic feeling and calm experienced near these sites. Another way ozone is produced is by photons from the sun breaking apart nitrous oxide, a pollutant formed by the combustion of hydrocarbons in the internal combustion engine. This ozone can accumulate in smog due to temperature inversions and is a lung and eye irritant.

These are the forms of ozone created by natural processes in the atmosphere.


The first ozone generators were developed by Werner von Siemens in Germany in 1857, and 1870 saw the first report on ozone being used therapeutically to purify blood, by C. Lender in Germany.

There is evidence of the use of ozone as a disinfectant from 1881, mentioned by Dr. Kellogg in his book on diphtheria. In October of 1893, the world’s first water treatment plant using ozone was installed in Ousbaden, Holland, and today there are over 3000 municipalities around the world that use ozone to clean their water and sewage. In 1885, the Florida Medical Association published “Ozone” by Dr. Charles J. Kenworth, MD, detailing the use of ozone for therapeutic purposes. In September 1896, the electrical genius Nikola Tesla patented his first ozone generator, and in 1900, he formed the Tesla Ozone Company. Tesla sold ozone machines to doctors for medical use, the same thing we are doing 100 years later, with a design based on one of his from the 1920s. We have seen one of these 75 year old generators, and it still works perfectly. Tesla produced ozonated olive oil and sold it to naturopaths, and we do, too. In 1898, the Institute for Oxygen Therapy was started in Berlin by Thauerkauf and Luth. They injected ozone into animals and bonded ozone to magnesium, producing Homozon. Beginning in 1898, Dr. Benedict Lust, a German doctor practicing in New York, who was the originator and founder Naturopathy, wrote many articles and books on ozone. In 1902, J.H.Clarke’s “A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica,” London describes the successful use of ozonated water in treating anemia, cancer, diabetes, influenza, morphine poisoning, canker sores, strychnine poisoning and whooping cough. In 1911, “A Working Manual of High Frequency Currents” was published by Dr. Noble Eberhart, MD. Dr. Eberhart was head of the Department of Physiologic Therapeutics at Loyola University. He used ozone to treat tuberculosis, anemia, chlorosis, tinnitus, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, hay fever, insomnia, pneumonia, diabetes, gout and syphilis.

In 1913, the Eastern Association for Oxygen Therapy was formed by Dr. Blass and some German associates.

During World War 1, ozone was used to treat wounds, trench foot, gangrene and the effects of poison gas. Dr. Albert Wolff of Berlin also used ozone for colon cancer, cervical cancer and decubitis ulcers in 1915.

In 1920, Dr. Charles Neiswanger, MD, the President of the Chicago Hospital College of Medicine published “Electro Therapeutical Practice.” Chapter 32 was entitled ” Ozone as a Therapeutic Agent.”

In 1926, Dr. Otto Warburg of the Kaiser Institute in Berlin announced that the cause of cancer is lack of oxygen at the cellular level. He received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1931 and again in 1944, the only person to ever receive two Nobel Prizes for Medicine. He was also nominated for a third.

In 1929, a book called “Ozone and Its Therapeutic Action” was published in the US listing 114 diseases and how to treat them with ozone. Its authors were the heads of all the leading American hospitals.

In 1933, the American Medical Association, headed up by Dr. Simmons set out to destroy all medical treatments that were competitive to drug therapy. The suppression of ozone therapy began then, and it continues in the US to this day.

The Swiss dentist E.A. Fisch was using ozone in dentistry before 1932, and introduced it to the German surgeon Erwin Payr who used it from that time forward.

Aubourg and Lacoste were French physicians using ozone insufflation from 1934-1938.

In 1948, Dr. William Turska of Oregon began using ozone, employing a machine of his own design, and in 1951, Dr. Turska wrote the article “Oxidation” which is still relevant today, and is included in our booklet. Dr. Turska pioneered injection of ozone into the portal vein, thereby reaching the liver. From 1953 onward, German doctor Hans Wolff used ozone in his practice, writing the book “Medical Ozone,” and training many doctors in ozone therapy. In 1957, Dr. J. Hansler patented an ozone generator which has formed the basis of the German expansion of ozone therapy over the last 35 years. Today over 7000 German doctors use ozone therapy daily. In 1961, Hans Wolff introduced the techniques of major and minor autohemotherapy. In 1977, Dr. Renate Viebahn provided a technical overview of ozone action in the body. In 1979, Dr. George Freibott began treating his first AIDS patient with ozone, and in 1980, Dr. Horst Kief also reported success treating AIDS with ozone. In 1987, Dr. Rilling and Dr. Viebahn published “The Use of Ozone in Medicine,” the standard text on the subject. In 1990, the Cubans reported on their success in treating glaucoma, conjunctivitis and retinitis pigmentosa with ozone.

In 1992, the Russians revealed their techniques of using ozone bubbled into brine to treat burn victims with astounding results.

Today, after 125 years of usage, ozone therapy is a recognized modality in many nations: Germany, France, Italy, Russia, Romania, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Israel, Cuba, Japan, Mexico, and in five US states.


Oxygen is the only gas that will pick up and hold electrical energy. In doing so, it becomes tremendously active and seeks to combine with all other substances. The list of substances that are inert to ozone is very short, and includes glass, Teflon, Kynar, silicone and gold. Therefore, any ozone generator and auxilliary equipment must be composed of these substances only. There are several different techniques used to produce medical grade ozone, where freedom from contamination is critical.

One type of generator uses an ultraviolet lamp as its source. It produces a very small amount of ozone in a narrow frequency bandwidth of ultraviolet light. Outside of that bandwidth, UV destroys ozone. A UV lamp is unreliable because it is subject to degradation over time, causing uncertainty regarding concentration, and eventually it burns out.

The second method of ozone production is corona discharge, where a tube with a hot cathode is surrounded by a screen anode. The best ones are called dual-dielectric, because they have a layer of glass separating each component from the gas stream. This prevents contamination of the ozone in the best designs, but heat is produced, and heat destroys ozone. To compensate for the loss in concentration, more electricity is used, resulting in more heat, and consequent electrical failure. This produces generators that have short lives.

Lack of durability has always beset the ozone generator industry, and was one of the major reasons for naturopaths mostly abandoning ozone therapy during the Thirties. I have spoken to doctors who have used ozone for three decades and have gone through a half dozen generators in that time, due to the lack of a durable generator, and reliable servicing.

Fortunately, there is a third method of producing clean, medical grade ozone. That method is called cold plasma. It uses two glass rods filled with a noble gas, electrostatic plasma field which turns the oxygen into ozone. Since there is no appreciable current, no heat is produced. Thus the generator will last a very long time, limited only by the quality of the power supply. The original cold plasma ozone generators were invented by Nikola Tesla in the 1920s, and they still work 75 years later.


Medical ozone is produced in varying concentrations. The quantity of ozone in comparison with the quantity of oxygen in the gas stream is called percent concentration. It is measured in micrograms (ug) of ozone per millilitre (or cc) of the mixture. A litre of oxygen weighs 1.4 grams.

Therefore: 0.5% x 1.4 gm = 7 ug/cc 1.0% x 1.4 gm = 14ug/cc 1.5% x 1.4 gm = 21ug/cc 2.0% x 1.4 gm = 28ug/cc 2.5% x 1.4 gm = 35ug/cc 3.0% x 1.4 gm = 42ug/cc 3.5% x 1.4 gm = 49ug/cc 4.0% x 1.4 gm = 56ug/cc 4.5% x 1.4 gm = 63ug/cc 5.0% x 1.4 gm = 70ug/cc

۵% or 70 ug/cc is considered to be the upper limit of concentration for internal use of medical ozone.

Dr. Greenberg of the Kief Clinic has shown, in vitro, that at concentrations of 90 ug/cc there was crimping of red blood cells which was definitely harmful. Experiments by F. Sweet et al have shown inhibition of growth in healthy cells at concentrations above 72 ug/cc. If we stay below that level, we will have no problems.

Ozone Therapy is Safest Known Therapy

Ozone has been found to be an extremely safe medical therapy, free from side effects. In a 1980 study done by the German Medical Society for Ozone Therapy, 644 therapists were polled regarding their 384,775 patients, comprising a total of 5,579,238 ozone treatments administered. There were only 40 cases of side effects noted out of this number which represents the incredibly low rate of .000007%, and only four fatalities. Ozone has thus proven to be the safest medical therapy ever devised.


When it comes to dosage and frequency of administration, there is some difference of opinion. Dr. Carpendale believes that a high concentration is necessary to kick-start the immune system initially, followed by much lower concentrations. He believes that continued high concentrations may be immunosuppressive, based on T-4 cell counts. Other doctors, such as Dr. Turska, recommend initial medium concentration doses, three times per week, followed by twice weekly at lower concentration, followed by weekly injection as long as necessary. Dr. Stan Beyrle recommends injection every four days at medium concentration. Dr. Wang has been giving daily injections at medium concentration, and direct injection into breast tumors. Dr. Freibott recommends very high concentrations at low dosages, with the emphasis on observing the patient’s blood saturation. Dr. Rillings classic, “The Use of Ozone in Medicine,” recently reprinted, gives many recommendations on dosage and concentration. There is no evidence that long term treatment on a daily basis has any detrimental effect. Doctors who have used it for decades have only positive results to report. Ozone is blatantly non-toxic. There is no evidence of free radical damage; in fact, ozone is the best free radical scavenger there is. Ozone also stimulates production of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, which are the enzymes in the cell wall which protect the cell from free radical damage, so ozone actually helps prevent free radical damage. Dr. Horst Kief of Germany recommends taking Vitamin A and Vitamin E supplements when receiving ozone treatments. It is know that Vitamin C is antagonistic to ozone, and persons taking megadoses of Vitamin C should maintain a 12 hour spread between ingestion and the ozone treatment, although ozone does not break down Vitamin C in the body. This effect of Vitamin C can be used to advantage in intravenous administration. Sometimes a patient will have a lot of coughing caused by ozone outgassing in the lungs from having had a bit too much too fast from the IV. If the coughing continues longer that 30 minutes, it can be stopped by administering 5000 mg of Vitamin C orally. The ozone reaction will end quickly and the patient will be more comfortable and have a better attitude toward the therapy. The rate of injection should be very slow, about 10 cc per minute. Since intravenous injections are 95-98 % oxygen and 2-5 % ozone gas, some doctors have expressed concern about embolism. However, there is no danger of embolism from injections of oxygen and ozone. Only nitrogen forms a dangerous gas bubble, as when divers get the bends from surfacing too fast. The human body runs perfectly well on 100% oxygen; consider the fighter pilots who breathe 100% oxygen daily for years — they have the highest reflexes, visual acuity and level of general health of any group of humans.